248 The Bible According to Einstein
The eleventh book of Physics, called
The New Testament 249
And the existence of such tiny objects will sometimes be met with skepticism, for some among ye will think that what one cannot see cannot be. But scientists shall perform experiments that provide overwhelming evidence for nuclei and atoms. And such scientists shall believe in the atom and the nucleus. And others, who have not witnessed such experiments, shall have to rely on faith.
Chapter IV: Energy Levels
Now because electrons weigh so little, they shall move rapidly about the nucleus. And since quantum mechanics shall rule the motions of electrons, each electron shall behave both like a particle and like a wave. And each electron in an atom shall satisfy the quantum wave equation and only be allowed to be in a specific quantum state. And given that there are only discrete possibilities for energies, only in certain energy levels may electrons be.
Chapter V: Angular Momentum States
Now the paths of an electron shall go around the nucleus. And the amount of revolution of an electron around the nucleus shall be its orbital angular momentum. Quantum mechanics shall permit only discrete possibilities for such revolutions.238 Thus angular momentum shall be quantized: it shall be an integer times Planck’s constant. Now an electron with zero angular momentum shall be an s-wave. And the electron cloud of such an s-wave electron shall be spherical in shape. Now the next-to-lowest angular momentum possibility of one unit of Planck’s constant shall be a p-wave. And there shall be three different p-wave clouds, corresponding the three directions, x, y and z, of three space. The three possible p-wave electron clouds shall look like "dumbbells" oriented in x or y or z directions. And the next-to-next-to-lowest angular momentum state, corresponding to a value of two times Planck’s constant, shall be a d-wave. And there shall be five ways to orient d-wave clouds. And after d-waves there shall be f-waves, with seven different types of clouds. And so on. All this shall follow from the quantum laws, which reign over the region of the atom and the small, for quantum mechanics shall come from the Uni-Law, which, although broken, still rules all.
238 See Chapter XII of the Book of Quantum Mechanics.
250 The Bible According to Einstein
Chapter VI: Spectrum
Now electrons shall change their energy by emitting or absorbing photons. And for example, when a photon strikes an atom, an electron can absorb the photon and pass from a low-energy level to a higher-energy configuration. Or the opposite may happen: An electron in an excited state can emit a photon and end up in a lower state. And when such an electron "tumbles," the photon’s energy shall be the energy that the electron just has lost, for according to the Sixth Commandment, energy shall be conserved. Thus the photon’s energy shall be the difference in the energies of two atomic states. But because there are only particular possibilities for atomic energies, the energies of photons emitted or absorbed shall be discrete. These discrete possibilities for photon energies shall be the spectrum of an atom.